Why Use Interrupts In Arduino

In this tutorial you will learn what you can and cannot do with interruptions on your Arduino plate and how. You will learn how with a few simple steps you can take advantage of one of the most interesting tools of Arduino (as well as any other microcontroller), so I’m sure that many of your projects will improve considerably (they will be more efficient and accurate).

This one (like the one I told you about using Arduino’s EEPROM memory) is one of the types of post I like best and that’s because you don’t need to buy any module or badge, it’s something you already had and you didn’t know how to use, it’s something you had and you were just wasting, it’s something that reminds me to tell you: know your Arduino! Okay, I’m not gonna go all Bruce Lee, either, but seriously, we spend a lot of money doing things that we could do with what we already have and using the interruptions in Arduino is a great example of this.

An interruption is basically to detect an event and perform something accordingly. Your Arduino has a series of pins (you can see which ones later) to which you can associate a module (a code segment) so that it is executed when in that pin changes from one state to another that you have previously established.

In fact, you’ve probably already used Arduino’s interruptions without knowing it. When you use millis () type instructions you are using interruptions. Does that sound familiar to you that the millis() function returns to 0 after 50 days with your Arduino connected? Exactly! That is also done with interruptions (although of another kind you will see in this post).

What Are The Interrupts Of The Arduino?

Like All codes, it works for whatever you want to use in your project. Has not helped you much Right? Well, to give you a little idea of what you can use the interrupts you get are a few examples:

  • To detect changes like a push button that has been pressed.
  • To determine when you have finished managing the memory EEPROM or Flash your Arduino.
  • Controller alarm mode. This is an interesting feature of your badge that allows you to keep consumption to a minimum, leaving your Arduino in standby until some event happens. With it you can make your batteries last much longer. As this part is particularly interesting, I will write an article about it. In the meantime, I recommend you take a look at this post if you want to learn how to optimize your plate batteries.
  • As a Watchdog. The idea is similar to that of the previous point and I also hope to make a post about this.

What I just told you as an advantage is at the same time an inconvenience. If your Arduino responds to the interruption regardless of the code being executed, what if a delay() or millis () type instruction was running? Because your Arduino attends to the interruption and returns where it was going, that is, now the real time and the time that has passed for your Arduino are not the same because the interruption started to run when the time that had elapsed since you connected your Arduino (Millis () instruction ) was 200ms your interruption was activated and it has lasted 20ms but for your microcontroller that time has not existed, that is to say, the value of the millis () function has not increased and now you cannot trust the elapsed time and the worst is that you may not even be aware that the interruption has happened. What if the engine in that car had to be on 200ms and nothing but 200ms?

The reason Microsoft discontinued Visual Basic

It was a story that sounded perfect. Microsoft had perhaps the largest community of developers in the world hooked on a language that was in turn hooked on Windows. Still, Microsoft took this priceless asset and apparently threw it aside. Back in 2002 he announced that language would be replaced by something new, different and incompatible. And from that day until today that fact has caused a constant noise. Many Visual Basic developers reacted with feelings ranging from frustration to resentment. Many felt even betrayed. Now comes the explanation.

The Windows API

First is the theme of the Windows API. It is the low-level programming interface on Windows, as explained in the manuals as the classic author Charles Petzol: Programming Windows. It is mainly a interface C. All tool Windows programming compiled code that makes calls to the Windows API.

COM, the Component Object Model

Secondly, there is COM, The acronym for Component Object Model. , What is COM? It is essentially a mechanism for linking and uniting software components. It’s a binary standard, so it works with code compiled in runtime. Actually COM is a family of technologies. One of them is the ActiveX controls found both in Internet Explorer and Visual Basic. There is also COM automation, which is used in Microsoft Office and others to control one application from another. A third COM standard is OLE (Object Linking and Embedding), which is used when you insert an Excel spreadsheet into a Word document.

The framework .NET

The environment .NET is the replacement for Microsoft for COM. We all know the logic behind it .NET: it’s a little out of date, but in general it’s very useful. COM was replaced because it failed. It is a binary standard with a high coupling, making it weak for web applications. It is highly complex, which was one of the main reasons many developers were moving from Visual Basic to Java. He also had version problems, causing software failures. In contrast,.NET has a low coupling architecture, ideal for internet and mobile applications. It has also been designed to facilitate development and has many security and version functions that were not easy to implement in COM.

It is difficult to underestimate what that actually implies the change of Microsoft of COM .NET. I think that we must assume that the company is not what I would have done if I would have had a better alternative. If the policy of the industry had allowed, could have changed to JAVA instead of to .NET but the move away from COM was necessary for the Microsoft platform to continue to remain viable.

Today, with the family of technologies called Indigo, the scope of this measure becomes more apparent. Indigo subsites to COM+, The com base transaction server that is key in distributed business applications running on Windows. Indigo is also the new standard for web services XML, MSMQ (message queuing or message queue), transaction and remote object management, and even process-to-process communications. Indigo is built in the second version of the framework .NET.

Visual Basic obtains the skills of its COM components. In fact, Visual Basic was made using COM. It is not just a good customer or COM server; it is a COM product. Visual Basic object orientation is the type of COM object, and therefore does not make inheritances (COM is based on interfaces). Create a class module in VB6, and look at its instance property. Prfeieres PublicNotCreatable or GlobalSingleUse? These strange terms are COM characteristics. In other words, the technology on which Visual Basic was made was the technology that .NET was replacing. No easy way could be to adapt VB to become a language .NET.

Clearly Microsoft had to implement a new Visual Basic. However, he made the only feasible decision from my point of view. The company created a completely new product, making it compatible with VB6 only in those aspects that could be done without damaging the new language. In one or two cases he maintained broken functions in VB6 for the sake of compatibility (the strange case of arrays dimensioning comes to mind), but in general he did everything from scratch. The new product solved many of the problems encountered in VB6. I load the majority of the anomalies, supports the object-oriented, totally, eliminates the dependency on a single development environment (VB.NET it has a compiler command line) and generally eliminates the walls and the obstacles, equating to VB with any other language .NET.

Sound equipment measurement and adjustment programmes

At present there is no medium or large event that does not include the use of acoustic measurement programs for the correct adjustment of the P. A. system.we are talking about programs because, apart from the case of the specific hardware SIM3 that we will talk about on another occasion as it deserves separate mention, what all technicians use today to make the adjustment of their equipment are Analysis programs that work on PC or MAC.

Needless to say that with a small portable computer and those programs can leave a complex system of diffusion. The question a server asks to sound technicians and students is:

Did the concerts sound bad?

The answer is no, because the concerts sounded very well, in most cases, in the 70’s, 80’s and 90’s-it’s true! But if we compare that equipment that sounded good and unadjusted and the same once adjusted, the latter will sound much better to us. We already know that the ear works by comparison and only then can you decide if one sounds better than the other, it would be very difficult to have an auditory memory with a buffer so big that after days, weeks or months we could have an opinion about one team heard in the present moment and another heard in the past.


The computer, obviously for practical reasons, preferably portable. In principle it does not have to be the most powerful in the market either. The sound card or interface, in terms of its connectivity to the computer, can be realized in the way we advance later. Although, for practical reasons, we prefer a card with two inputs and two outputs via USB.

The inputs must be at least one of them in XLR format to connect the measuring microphone and, in addition to its corresponding phantom power supply, the second input can be XLR or jack, preferably online, must have their respective gain potentiometers; it would also be advisable to have two line audio outputs.


It is curious to note that more and more programs of this kind are being developed for MAC, why is it? Even SMAART LIVE, a program traditionally work in Windows! Will it have to look at the turn the Apple brand is taking with the compatibility of its new MacIntel computers, capable of running any operating system on the market from Mac OSX to Windows XP, through Linux, among others, with impressive stability? Time will tell.

As for the acoustic prediction programs detailed in previous issues, in the software we are dealing with we will detail the main features of all the programs, focusing on the operation of the most popular to date, SMAART LIVE.

Conviction of more than $ 400,000 to two companies for using unlicensed software

This is one of the largest damages imposed to date in Spain on a company for the installation and reproduction of computer programs infringing the intellectual property rights of the authors of the software.

The process began in 2015 on the basis of information received about the possible infringement through the BSA complaints website, and following the lawsuit filed in the courts of Alicante. The commercial court number 2 took over the case and ordered a register of the facilities of the companies Vicedo Marti and Enfavi, with headquarters in the town of alicante Ibi and dedicated to the design and manufacturing of parts and products through plastic injection. As a result of the judicial and expert inspection carried out on several computers, the unauthorized installation of programmes was found.

At the conclusion of the trial, the court has agreed to the plaintiff on each and every point argued by BSA’s lawyers, in accordance with the provisions of the law on Intellectual Property.

This involves the payment of a compensation of 453.480 euros in damages, a sum corresponding to the market value of the unlicensed software detected, to which the companies will have to add the legal interest in that have been incurred since the filing of the demand, and the payment of court costs, in total, more than € 500,000.

The requested companies must also destroy copies of the illegal software found on their equipment and cease their use, unless they acquire new legal versions of this advanced program for industrial design and manufacturing process management.

According to Carlos Pérez, partner in charge of the IT Area, Risk & Compliance of the firmal legal Ecija, “this ruling is an example of the serious legal risks faced by companies that use software for their benefit without acquiring the rights of the software through the corresponding agreement with the manufacturer. In addition to being an act of clear unfair competition, it is an infringement which, as we see, can have very important economic and operational consequences.”

BSA The Software Alliance, the entity that brings together the major software companies, have been informed of the resolution adopted by the commercial court number 2 of Alicante, by which the conviction of two companies to pay more than 453.000 euros in damages for the reproduction of programs of software without license.

Seguritech takes technology and innovation to Colombia

The Mexican company Seguritech, expert in integrating, developing and implementing intelligence technologies for Security, expands its leadership with a major project in Colombia.

According to data revealed by the Survey of Citizen Perceptions Medellín How are we Going 2018, the insecurity that is lived in the streets of that country, has been one of the biggest concerns over the last decade to the colombian. In 2018 alone, the perception of insecurity increased by 3% compared to 2017.

In view of the need to provide greater peace of mind for its inhabitants, Colombia has decided to rely on the experience and innovation of the Mexican company Seguritech, which this year will conclude an important security project, which will cover strategic points identified in various municipalities of the country, consolidating its leadership as an integrator of security technologies.

It also highlights that as part of this collaboration between the company led by Ariel Picker and the authorities of that country, for this project about 80% of the personnel involved will be Colombian, as an effort to train and ensure that Seguritech’s knowledge and innovation remains in Colombia even after the project has been completed.

The project aims to facilitate the video surveillance infrastructure necessary for the operation, as well as the training of the personnel involved, which will benefit the Colombian security office.

Technological innovation disrupts risk management

In today’s fast-paced business environment, technological innovation is full of potential benefits, but it is also full of risks. As more companies feel pressured to innovate, the risk assessment of disruptive technologies can sometimes stay in the middle of the road. Risk professionals who recognize rewards along with risks will help their businesses successfully adopt new technologies.

Traditionally, risk managers have been seen as isolated within their organizations. Today, this can mean that so-called innovators or disruptors in a company can avoid looking for the risk team for guidance. They fear that doing so may lead to a speech about why a new idea, process, or technology is an obstacle and should not aspire to that. Fortunately, risk professionals are increasingly aware of that scenario.

In a recent survey by Marsh, an overwhelming majority of risk professionals agreed that understanding technological innovation is essential to stay at the forefront of their industry.

At the same time, however, two thirds of these same professionals said that their company has either not established plans and procedures to assess new risks, or were unsure whether such processes are in place.

This is in line with the results of a recent survey conducted by Marsh and RIMS, in which more than half of the respondents said that their company had not conducted risk assessments around disruptive technologies.

“Given the impact that disruptive technology can have on an organization’s strategy, that lack of attention to risks must be considered unacceptable,” the report says.

A thorough assessment of the risks arising from the use of technological innovations within an organisation can improve the understanding of a company’s changing risk profile. For example, in Lyft, our team of risk works closely with the legal, finance, compliance, government relations, and others to fully understand the risk of the technology from all angles. In general, challenges may relate to reporting structures, conflicting priorities and bandwidth, making inter-functional collaboration critical.

In recent years, a major focus on data breach and privacy due to cyber risks can sometimes steal the spotlight from evaluating other major risks.

Data breach, privacy and other cyber risks certainly should not be taken lightly, but there is a wider range of disruptive technology-related risks that need to be taken into account as companies adopt new innovations. Modern risk professionals need to look for solutions and alternatives that allow innovation while balancing risk. And to do that, they need to help their company break down organizational silos and intensify discussions.

In a time in which it takes advantage of the disruption or is affected by it, professionals of the risk must assert a leadership role in the understanding, assessment and management of the risks and rewards of technological innovation.

Innovation, technology, customer service and intermodality: the keys of the ports of the future

Executive Forum and Eurogansión held yesterday in Madrid the first edition of the event ” ports of the future. Disruptive business models in the Spanish port sector”. The day counted with the participation of the State Ports, the port authorities of Barcelona, Bilbao and Valencia, Adif and IDOM, in whose headquarters it developed the event.

Juan Manuel Martínez, Director General of Eurogansión, welcomed the attendees and introduced the event. Álvaro Rodríguez, director of Planning and development of ports of the state, has intervened in the first place highlighting the importance and the innovative and technological advances in the different national ports, and has explained that now “we are focusing our efforts on improving the service we provide” in order to generate value and loyalty to the customers.

Rodriguez has also announced the launch of an R & D & i plan, endowed with the 1% annual cash Flow generated by all port authorities, to encourage technological innovation in the next 5 years. Next, José Manuel García de la Guía, Chief of Information Technologies, Port Authority of Valencia has begun his presentation recognizing that “the board in which we are now moving is global”, as well as that the rise of “technological ecosystems” is encouraging small startups to form port clusters and gain ground to the detriment of large corporations. In addition, it has presented the three main objectives proposed by Valencia: operation of the port of Call of the ship, operation of goods in the modal exchange and integration in the global logistics.

Latest trends

Luis Gabiola, director of Operations, Commercial and logistics of the Port Authority of Bilbao, also intervened remembering that “the ports compete in the logistic chains” and has recognized that “sometimes we forget that we are a critical infrastructure”. In reference to the latest trends which includes Bilbao in the port management, has referred to the cybersecurity, and the sincromodialidad, the blockchain interoperable, the RSC, the scanning, and port 4.0. Representing the Port of Barcelona, the head of energy projects and innovation, Carles Rúa has considered that the new drivers are the customer, the market and the technology. In this regard, it has recognized that Spain maintains a remarkable international position in the development of Port information and communication technologies, but that, however, much remains to be done since this type of infrastructure is beginning to be considered as commodities, so the challenge of diversification would be fundamental to achieving competitive ports.

Antonio Aguilar, head of area of the Directorate of Logistic Services of Adif, has explained the intermodal relationship port-railway, recognizing that in recent years the interest of the railway in the ports has increased, as in them the cargo is concentrated more and more. Therefore, boosting the ferroportuary traffic of the goods would be a challenge for both sectors. For its part, Lluís Miró, director of Projects, Ports & Logistics IDOM, presented the proposed technology of its organization for the management of the supply chain from the ports by using the combination of Big Data and Artificial Intelligence.

In this sense, it has encouraged the port authorities to assume a proactive role of leadership in the digital transformation processes of the ports. Finally, a round table has been held around which all speakers and attendees have actively discussed issues such as the role of rail in the development of the hinterland of ports and other issues related to the digital transformation processes of the sector

Science for all programme for entrepreneur

Promote interest in scientific knowledge and technology among the student population of basic and higher education, preferably in marginalized rural and urban areas.

Specific objectives

  • Disseminate the general principles, methods, results and importance of scientific practices, highlighting how throughout the history the knowledge is transformed into technological improvements, and these in turn modify and improve the mode and quality of life of the human.
  • Disseminate scientific knowledge content that is easily differentiated for each segment of the target population: pre-school, primary, secondary and high school, adapting them to the rural and urban environment.
  • To awaken in the children of pre-school and Primary School the concern for creativity, observation and experimentation as a means of obtaining knowledge, with practices according to their age characterized by a constant desire to know the world in which they develop.
  • Develop outreach activities and interactive workshops that promote interest among high school students in the different fields of Science and technology.
  • To carry out activities and disseminate to high school students information that motivates them to orient their interest in studying in scientific and technological specialties, at the same time expanding their vision and understanding of the fields of work for the different types of scientific practices.

Content to develop:

  • Cartoon printed about the evolution of the knowledge, inventions and technology as the science is linked and transformed with the technology to improve the life of human beings.
  • Selection of videos of science and technology in the dissemination of relevant topics such as energy, water, health, food, the planet, the information and communication technologies.
  • Identifying promotional videos that clearly account for how a scientific discovery prompted the emergence of diverse technologies that affected and modified daily life, such as electricity and cooling, computing and the internet.
  • Design, prepare and document scientific and/or technological practices and experiments for replication in open workshops.
  • Design posters and promotional materials that disseminate interest in science and technology and show their impact on the lives of human beings and the planet as a whole.
  • Design and produce a cartoon –cartoon – for the introduction to dissemination sessions with students of basic education. The content would demonstrate the history of scientific knowledge and inventions that have determined our living conditions.
  • Design and produce audiovisual and multimedia material to disseminate information capsules on science and technology issues by various means.

Each participating agency or unit will highlight a liaison and volunteer members to promote the programme and to facilitate the means to conduct the sessions and/or workshops provided for in the programme.

The fellows who will be responsible for carrying out activities that the volunteers cannot do and that are recognized by the participating institutions as fellows.

Planning and evaluation

Depending on the objectives of the programme and the breakdown of the activities to be carried out, it will be necessary to establish the goals, timetables and indicators that allow us to plan and evaluate the activities, considering their expected impact according to objectives and the coverage of the population by segments that have been identified as users of the programme.

The importance of technology in business development for VISA

Having a company means being at the forefront, going at the pace that the market requires, providing an immediate solution to the problems that are being presented and making it clear that technological advances generate development.

Technology advances and, in its wake, relegates all those companies that do not dare to innovate, that do not dare to try new technological options. There are very simple examples such as those companies that refuse to use social networks, which fear the impact of e-commerce and other technological alternatives for business.

But those who see technological innovation as an ally, which gives them a possibility of growth, they manage to keep effective in the market and their competitiveness is increased; such is the case of Hertz, a lessor of automobiles located in Colombia that have been found in the technology way of making more efficient their work and provide a better service.

In this sense, Carlos Otalora, National Director of Hertz, based in Bogotá, points out that the technological issue must be a priority, because clients demand improvements in the service, employees need agility in the programs they work and mainly to avoid losses.

He explained that an example of the application of technological tools was the implementation of a monitoring program that currently has the complete registry of operations, which arose from the need to make the service more agile and secure.

“We have very powerful self-creation software that tells us in real time how operations are done from other cities; this development occurred because in the market there was no program to guarantee the correct administration of the automotive fleet, then the creation of EquiSoft corrected all technological needs.”

He said that they are developing the program more and more, making it light, sophisticated, making it the heart of the operation in Hertz. He also said that little by little more modules, service lines and production were implemented to the program, incorporating a better control technology; currently all cars have GPS, which allows them to track in real time, of course, with the support of human capital.

“We have a systems department composed of a staff of programmers, auditors, operators, software designers, who are recently working on an application, which is close to being implemented, also seek to make our software-which is in permanent development-increasingly robust, reliable, a better generator of information to make decisions.”

He stressed that within the company, in terms of technology they are in constant development, right now they are redesigning the website, which is currently only informative, but the expectation is that they can sell through it.

“Our website has good traffic, but we are looking for it to also be a shopping platform, online booking, we are in the redesign; it will be a new challenge, because there is still no culture of security on the web, it is not so easy to tell the customer to feel safe in making internet transactions, but we will put all our efforts to make it work.”

In conclusion, Carlos Otalora commented that the work they do in the field of technology goes hand in hand with customer care, that they try to make it as personalized as possible, looking for the fidelity of those who use their services, always trying to follow up correctly and keeping abreast of their needs.

We have a system department made up of programmers, auditors, operators, software designers who work constantly on developments: Hertz.

The software also ages like anything

When we think about the passage of time in computer science, we automatically focus on hardware. Over the years, computers become obsolete, because they are too slow, have little memory or little disk space. Either one of its components is damaged and the cost of repair (if spare parts are still possible) is higher than the cost of changing it to a new one.

However, even if it seems to be a lie, the years also pass for the software. Applications also age and need continuous care to remain useful: errors need to be corrected, their safety improved, adapted to new devices, functionalities added and even monitored to comply with new laws (for example, the European Data Protection Directive, GDPR, which comes into force in 2018 and will require a review of all websites and applications that deal with user data).

If the application is critical and difficult to replace with a new one, such as a bank database, it is often maintained while technology allows… or while there is someone with enough knowledge of that technology (this explains why COBOL experts, one of the oldest programming languages, are still paid so well!). But in general, when an application is created, the developer usually plans a limited and short period of active maintenance. At the end of this period the end-of-life occurs, that is, the end of the product life, a concept closely related to the concept of programmed obsolescence that affects our appliances.

This software death is not quick and painless, but rather degenerative. Gradually the application is no longer improved and only serious errors and security holes are corrected. Later on, the product is removed from the usual distribution channels (web download, app stores, etc.) and, at Best, more modern alternatives are suggested if any. Finally, the company behind the product finishes it by stopping any type of support or update of the application. From this moment on users are “alone in the face of danger”. At best, you can continue using the software but at your own risk. However, most of the time, compatibility problems between the application and the external hardware or libraries on which it relies are going to make it quickly completely unusable. At that time, the only hope is projects such as Archive (which attempt to preserve software for generations to come) or emulation (the software simulation of a hardware platform) and virtual machines, which enable older programs to be run on more modern computers (such as console emulators or recreational machines).

How long does it take to move from one stage to another? That depends on user demand and the interest of developers. For certain products such as operating systems, developers often mark well-defined and easy-to-predict life cycles so customers can plan their purchase and use. But for other applications, such as a mobile app or a web service, the developer can leave it at any time. We have recently had two famous cases of end-of-life applications: Microsoft Paint (2017) and Adobe Flash (2020). In the case of Microsoft Paint, the anger of users managed to save this application from its digital death.

But not all are bad news: the misfortune of some is usually an opportunity for others. The aging of software opens up many business opportunities, especially in a context where many applications are completely released as free software. In this way, anyone has the opportunity to continue to maintain an application that their original creator has abandoned and stay with their customers, who will be happy to avoid the headache of selecting, migrating and learning to use a new application. And there are solutions even when the source code of the application is not available. It is not easy (or sometimes quite legal, to consult in each case) but by studying the executable file of the application you can get a more or less understandable version of the source code.